Title: Consumer Footprint. Basket of Products indicator on Mobility
Publisher: Publications Office of the European Union
Publication Year: 2017
JRC N°: JRC107954
ISBN: 978-92-79-73192-1 (print)
978-92-79-73191-4 (pdf)
ISSN: 1018-5593 (print)
1831-9424 (online)
Other Identifiers: EUR 28763 EN
OP KJ-NA-28763-EN-C (print)
OP KJ-NA-28763-EN-N (online)
URI: http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC107954
DOI: 10.2760/539712
Type: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports
Abstract: The EU Consumer Footprint aims at assessing the environmental impacts of consumption. The methodology for assessing the impacts is based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) of products (or services) purchased and used in one year by an EU citizen. This report is about the subset indicator of the consumer footprint of the basket of product (BoP) on mobility. The baseline model of the BoP mobility is built using statistics about European fleet composition and intensity of use of transport means by European citizens, i.e. the number of kilometers travelled by road, rail and air transport. These data are then allocated to 27 representative products, including 16 types of passenger cars, 3 types of 2-wheelers, 3 types of bus transport, 2 types of rail transport and 3 types of air transport. The resulting baseline inventory model, referring to the year 2010, has been assessed for 15 different impact categories, using the ILCD life cycle impact assessment method. A sensitivity analysis has been run for some impact categories, with a selection of recent impact assessment models and factors. Results allows a wide array of considerations, as this study reports overall impact in Europe due to mobility, average impact per citizen, share of impact due to each transport mode and type of vehicle. The results highlight that road transport is by far the mode of transport contributing the most to the impact of EU citizens’ mobility. Within this macro-category, the product groups that can be considered hotspots for the European mobility are passenger cars, and especially diesel cars. In terms of impact categories, resource depletion is the most important one, especially for road transport (due to the materials used to build the vehicles and the fossil fuels used in the use stage). The contribution of life cycle stages to the overall impact of the BoP mobility varies among impact categories: vehicle usage, fuel production and vehicle production are the most relevant stages for almost all the impact categories considered. To assess potential benefits stemming from selected ecoinnovations applied to the mobility sector, the Consumer Footprint BoP mobility baseline has been assessed against five scenarios. The scenarios developed for the BoP mobility regard the use of eco-driving measures (including technical and behavioural changes), an increased use of biofuels in substitution of the current blend of diesel, and the evolution of hybrid and electric mobility (as the share of hybrid and electric vehicles in the European fleet and of the expected increase in efficiency of the batteries). In addition, one scenario is directly related to changes in the lifestyle of European citizens, namely the shift of a portion of their mobility habits from private cars to public transport, for what concern the mobility in urban areas. The amount of km travelled yearly by European citizens plays a relevant role in the assessment of the scenarios representing possible improvement options for the sector. Indeed, the number of person*km (pkm) travelled yearly by an average European citizen is constantly growing over time. This is reflected in the larger impact (over all the impact categories considered) of the baseline for the reference year 2015 over the baseline 2010 and of scenario 1 (expected situation in 2030) over the baselines 2015 and 2010. The increase of the pkm travelled offsets the reduction of the impact per km travelled achieved through the introduction of cars compliant to the new emission standards (Euro 6) and through the increase of electric and hybrid vehicles. The expected improvements related to electric and hybrid cars, and especially on the batteries, could lead to a reduction of the impact of these type of vehicles up to 40% (e.g. impact of improved electrical vehicle on freshwater eutrophication, compared to the current performance of electrical vehicle). However, the relevance of these improvements on the overall impact of the BoP (i.e. of the mobility of EU citizens) is strongly dependent on the share of vehicles in the fleet. In general, the impact reduction expected from the single solutions tested in the scenarios has a limited effect on the overall impact of the BoP (i.e. of the consumption area of mobility) if they are considered one by one and it is the combination of several measures that may help to maximize the benefits. Specifically for the mobility sector, a reduction of the total kms travelled by road, rail or air means of transport (e.g. by increasing the kms travelled by bicycle or by walking, when possible), is needed, to avoid that the reduction of impact achieved through technological improvements is offset by the continuous increase in the amount of pkm over time.
JRC Directorate:Sustainable Resources

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