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|Title:||White, Green & Brown Certificates: How to make the most of them?|
|Authors:||BERTOLDI PAOLO; REZESSY Silvia; LANGNISS Ole; VOOGT Monique|
|Citation:||Proceedings of the European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy Summer Study 2005|
|Publisher:||European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ECEEE)|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Recently a number of market-based instruments have been introduced to achieve sustainable energy policy goals. The most prominent MBIs are tradable permits and certificates introduced to attain CO2 or other pollutant emission reductions, to promote market-driven penetration of renewable energy sources (green certificates), and, more recently, to foster energy efficiency improvements (white certificates). The paper identifies design and operational features that the MBIs in the energy sector share and analyses how these features have been implemented in existing schemes. Creation of demand, organisation of markets and institutional requirements are among the issues discussed. Possible ways to integrate different schemes are investigated in order to achieve the maximum environmental benefit as well as a high degree of economic efficiency, including suggestions for a potential integration of white and green certificates and a possible further integration with CO2 emission trading.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Environment and Sustainability|
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