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|Title:||Levels and Patterns of PCDD/FS in Air, Soil and Biota from Krakow and the Malopolska Region (Ploand)|
|Authors:||CHRISTOPH EUGEN; EISENREICH STEVEN; GHIANI MICHELA; MARIANI GIULIO; MUELLER ANNE; NIEDZIALEK JOANNA; PARADIZ Bostjan; SKEJO HELLE; UMLAUF GUNTHER|
|Citation:||ORGANOHALOGEN COMPOUNDS vol. 68 p. 1029-1033|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||In the new EU Member States domestic combustion of coal and wood in small heating appliances has been discussed as a potential source of PCDD/Fs into the atmosphere. The existing Dioxin emission inventories from the old Member States-EU 15 are lacking quantitative information about their actual contribution to total PCDD/F emissions, since these type of heating appliances do not play a big role in the EU 15. However, high PCDD/F levels in ambient air measured during winter time in Poland indicated an important contribution from domestic heating. The widespread use of hard coal in Krakow for domestic heating makes this area appropriate for studying the influence on ambient PCDD/Fs levels.In a first study during summer and winter 2002 particulate matter in air from the city-centre (Aleje) and an industrial area (Nova Huta) in Krakow were compared to a mountain resort without industry (Zakopane approximately 100 km south of Krakow), in order to visualize urban and industrial impacts. The air samples of summer and winter 2002 showed differences in the levels of Dioxin concentrations and also in Dioxin congener patterns. At Zakopane the Dioxin concentrations were low during summer with a Dioxin congener pattern typical for long range transport and remote areas. During winter, the congener-pattern changed drastically and also the Dioxin-concentration rose about 40 times to the highest levels found at this study. Since there is no industry present at Zakopane, the use of hard-coal for domestic heating was assigned as the main source for the Dioxins in Zakopane air. The city centre of Krakow showed the same summer winter change: A rise of 20 times in concentrations and also similar fingerprints as Zakopane in winter, indicating that domestic heating with hard coal is the dominant emission source also in Krakow. Dioxin emissions from traffic and industry, which should be visible during summer as well, had only minor impact on the investigated sites in the center of Krakow. In contrast, Nova Huta showed no change between summer and winter. High concentrations were measured in summer and in winter and the fingerprint, which was different compared to Krakow and Zakopane, did not change. This indicated that Dioxins in Nova Huta air resulted from continuous industrial emissions close to the surface level from nearby located coke production and metal industries. In the study reported here, additional air samples (this time particulate matter and gas phase) were collected during 2 weeks in winter 2005 from two sites in Krakow. To extend the study on the impact of emissions on environmental pollution in the region, a transect of soil samples (the sink of atmospheric bulk deposition) and biota (spruce needles as an indicator for the bio-availability of airborne PCDD/Fs) were taken between Krakow and Zakopane and from Krakow to the east. The 2002 campaign on ambient air demonstrated a major role of domestic heating on the PCDD/F levels present in the ambient air of urban and especially rural areas where coal is used, but also diffuse release from industrial processes at Nova Huta may have an impact on a local scale. Thus, the comparably high PCDD/F concentrations found in ambient air of Krakow/Malopolska region do not seem to result in enhanced PCDD/F deposition into the Malopolska ecosystem (the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in soil and spruce were comparable to data available from Western Europe).|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Environment and Sustainability|
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