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|Title:||On-board PM Measurements: Status of Regulatory Developments and Instrumentation Technology|
|Authors:||RUBINO LAURETTA; BONNEL PIERRE; KRASENBRINK ALOIS; DE SANTI Giovanni; CARRIERO MASSIMO; KUBELT JANEK; MONTIGNY FRANCOIS; FUMAGALLI IVANO|
|Citation:||Proceedings of the 10th ETH Conference on Combustion Generated Nanoparticles p. 1-43|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Field testing with Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) is becoming an important regulatory tool to monitor the in-use compliance of large sources like heavy-duty vehicles, construction and agriculture equipment. Legislative research programmes in Europe, United States and Japan are introducing PEMS in the regulations. The current development status of instrumentation and test procedures is mature for gaseous emissions. The most critical issue remains the development of portable PM instruments and the associated protocol. The main objectives of the paper are: To provide an overview of the on-going regulatory efforts regarding on-board PM measurements both in the European Union and the United States; To review the available portable measurement techniques; To discuss the technical issues related to the development of an official ¿on-board test procedure¿. The discussion and the conclusions will be supported by some findings from the EU-PEMS project and in particular the evaluation of portable instruments under controlled laboratory conditions (i.e. on reference test cycles) and against reference instruments. PM mass measurements were carried out from a Euro III heavy-duty engine. For the filter gravimetric method, the Control Sistem micro-PSS (portable proportional diluter) was compared to the standard gravimetric methods using full dilution within the CVS dilution tunnel and two laboratory proportional flow sampling systems such as the AVL Smart Sampler (SPC 472) and the Control Sistem PSS-20. For real-time measurement, the AVL 483 micro soot sensor was also tested in parallel with the gravimetric methods using both full flow and partial flow dilution. The measurements were found to be highly repeatable over the regulatory cycles. Bio-fuel was also used to characterise the instruments in different ranges and its effect upon the black carbon concentration observed. Regarding the development of on-board test procedures, the first findings from tests conducted on city buses will be presented. The main issues related to a less controlled on-board environment (with vibrations, temperature changes) compared to more controlled laboratory conditions will be highlighted.|
|JRC Institute:||Sustainable Resources|
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