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|Title:||Large-scale Production of Highly Enriched 28Si for the Precise Determination of the Avogadro Constant|
|Authors:||BECKER P.; SCHIEL D; POHL H-J; KALITEEVSKI A; GODISOV O; CHURBANOV M; DEVYATYKH G; GUSEV A; BULANOV A; ADAMCHIK S; GAVVA V; KOVALEV I; ABROSIMOV N; HALLMANN-SEIFFERT B; RIEMANN H; VALKIERS STAF; TAYLOR PHILIP; DE BIEVRE P; DIANOV E|
|Citation:||MEASUREMENT SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY vol. 17 p. 1854-1860|
|Publisher:||IOP PUBLISHING LTD|
|JRC Publication N°:||JRC34392|
|Type:||Articles in Journals|
|Abstract:||An attempt is described to replace the present definition of the kilogram with the mass of a certain number of silicon atoms. A prerequisite for this is that the Avogadro constant, NA, is determined with a relative uncertainty of better than 2 × 10−8. For the determination, silicon crystals are used. However, the difficulty arising thereby is the measurement of the average molar mass of natural Si. Consequently, a worldwide collaboration has been launched to produce approximately a 5 kg 28Si single crystal with an enrichment factor greater than 99.985% and of sufficient chemical purity so that it can be used to determine NA with the targeted relative measurement uncertainty mentioned above. In the following, the first successful tests of all technological steps will be reported (enrichment of SiF4, distillation into silane and chemical purification, chemical vapour deposition of polycrystalline 28Si, floating zone growth of a dislocation-free single crystal) and new equipment for the production of high-purity 28Si with an enrichment of not less than 99.99% will be described. All steps are well defined by a Technical Road Map (TRM28) and all key results are measured by new mass spectrometric, IR spectroscopic and other chemical and physical methods, such as Hall effect, photoluminescence, laser scattering and x-ray topographic methods (TRM for Analytical Monitoring and Certification, TRM28-AMC). The initial enrichment of the gas is >0.999 95 and the depletion during the entire process is <0.000 05. The isotopic homogeneity is checked by natural Si crystal growth and does, in the enriched sphere, not exceed 5 × 10−10, relatively. The C content of the final material is less than 1015 atoms cm−3 and the specific resistance is 400–1000 _ cm|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements|
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