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|Title:||Polar Herbicides, Pharmaceuticals, Perfluorooctansulfonate (PFOS), Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), Nonylphenol and its Carboxylates and Ethoxylates in Surface and Tap Waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy|
|Authors:||LOOS ROBERT; WOLLGAST JAN; HUBER TANIA; HANKE GEORG|
|Citation:||ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY vol. 387 p. 1469-1478|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||A survey of contamination of surface and drinking waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy with polar anthropogenic environmental pollutants was conducted. Target analytes comprised polar herbicides, pharmaceuticals (including antibiotics), estradiol hormones, perfluorooctansulfonate (PFOS), perfluorinated alkancarboxylates (including perfluorooctanoate PFOA), nonylphenol, its carboxylates and ethoxylates (NPEO surfactants), and triclosan, a bactericide used in personal care products. Analysis of water samples was performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole (tandem) mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). By extraction of 1 L water samples and concentration of the extract to 100 µL, method detection limits (MDLs) as low as 0.05 - 0.1 ng/L were achieved for most compounds. Lake water samples from seven different locations in the Southern part of Lake Maggiore and eleven samples from different tributary rivers and creeks were investigated. Moreover, rain water was analysed to investigate the atmospheric input of the contaminants. The following compounds were regularly detected in very low concentrations in the lake water: caffeine (max. concentration 124 ng/L), the herbicides terbutylazine (7 ng/L), atrazine (5 ng/L), simazine (16 ng/L), diuron (11 ng/L), atrazine-desethyl (11 ng/L), the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine (9 ng/L), sulfamethoxazole (10 ng/L), gemfibrozil (1.7 ng/L), benzafibrate (1.2 ng/L), the surfactant metabolite nonylphenol (15 ng/L), its carboxylates (NPE1C 120 ng/L, NPE2C 7 ng/L, NPE3C 15 ng/L) and ethoxylates (NPEnOs, n=3-17; 300 ng/L), perfluorinated surfactants (PFOS 9 ng/L, PFOA 3 ng/L), and estrone (0.4 ng/L). Drinking water produced from Lake Maggiore revealed quasi identical levels as found in the lake itself, demonstrating a poor performance of sand filtration and chlorination applied by the local water works.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Environment and Sustainability|
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