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|Title:||Cadmium and Children: Exposure and Health Effects|
|Authors:||SCHOETERS Greet; DEN HOND Elly; ZUURBIER Moniek; NAGINIENE Rima; VAN DEN HAZEL Peter; RONCHETTI Roberto; KOPPE Janna; STILIANAKIS NIKOLAOS|
|Citation:||ACTA PAEDIATRICA vol. 95 no. suppl 453 p. 50-54|
|Publisher:||TAYLOR & FRANCIS AS|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Cadmium exposure starts to accumulate in the body at young age . Exposure routes in children are mainly via food, environmental tobacco smoke and house dust. Excretion from the body is limited. Cadmium accumulation in the kidney is responsible for effects such as nephrotoxicity and osteoporosis which are observed at adult age. Cadmium exposure is also associated with lung cancer. Although transfer to the neonate trough placenta and through breast milk is limited , teratogenic and developmental effects are observed in experimental animals. The database on human studies involving children is limited, effects on motoric and perceptual behaviour in children have been associated with elevated in utero cadmium exposure . In school age children urinary cadmium levels were associated with immune suppressive effects. More studies are needed to confirm these results. Experimental data in vitro and in animals refer to effects of cadmium on the hypothalamus – pituitary axis at different levels. This may lead to disorders of the endocrine and/or immune system. Cadmium exposure at early age should be limited as much as possible to prevent direct effects on children and to prevent accumulation of cadmium which may have serious health effects only becoming manifest at older age.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen|
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