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|Title:||Biological Monitoring of Rivers and the European Water Legislation|
|Authors:||CARDOSO ANA; SOLIMINI ANGELO; PREMAZZI GUIDO|
|Publisher:||John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.|
|Type:||Articles in books|
|Abstract:||River quality in Europe has traditionally been determined using physico-chemical elements and benthic invertebrate fauna (FBA, 2000), often with classification computed by not considering background values for those elements. The classification requirements introduced by the WFD involve a considerable burden to the rivermanagement authorities that are forced to develop monitoring programs, including all biological elements/parameters and to establish the appropriate protection/ restoration measures. This chapter provides an overview of the European water legislation relevant to river quality, with emphasis on the Water Framework Directive (WFD).|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Environment and Sustainability|
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