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|Title:||ECVAM's Progress in Implementing the 3Rs in Europe|
|Citation:||ALTEX (Alternatives to Animal Experiments) vol. 23 no. Special issue p. 21-28|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Starting with the animal welfare Directive from 1986 and continuing until most recent chemicals and cosmetics legislation, Europe has laid the ground for the implementation of alternative methods. In order to meet these political expectations, a couple of technical and strategic developments became necessary: - An analysis of current in vivo test performance to set benchmarks for alternatives - An analysis of the frequency (prevalence) of toxic health effects in different areas of test application - An inventory and database of the alternative methods available - A coached development of lacking tests also making use of novel technologies - An acceleration and international harmonisation of the validation process and regulatory implementation - A development of quality assurance systems for in vitro methods such as Good Laboratory Practice and Good Cell Culture Practice - A transition from single tests as stand-alone replacements to the composition of test strategies and their validation. The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) has played a proactive role in all these processes co-ordinating many stakeholder activities. A review of the state of these developments shall be given, in order to show how a new type of evidence-based toxicology is emerging which is based on validated and quality controlled test strategies.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection|
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