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|Title:||How to Reduce False Positive Results When Undertaking In Vitro Genotoxicity Testing and Thus Avoid Unnecessary Follow-up Animal Tests: Report of an ECVAM Workshop|
|Authors:||KIRKLAND DAVID; PFUHLER STEFAN; TWEATS DAVID; AARDEMA Marilyn; CORVI RAFFAELLA; DARROUDI Firouz; ELHAJOUJI Azeddine; GLATT Hansruedi; HASTWELL Paul; HAYASHI Makoto; KASPER Peter; KIRCHNER Stephan; LYNCH Anthony; MARZIN Daniel; MAURICI Daniela; MEUNIER Jean-Roc; MUELLER Lutz; NOHYNEK Gerhard; PARRY James; PARRY Elizabeth; THYBAUD Veronique; TICE Ray; VAN BENTHEM Jan; VANPARYS Philippe; WHITE Paul|
|Citation:||MUTATION RESEARCH-GENETIC TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MUTAGENESIS vol. 628 p. 31-55|
|Publisher:||ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Workshop participants agreed that genotoxicity tests in mammalian cells in vitro produce a remarkably high and unacceptable occurrence of irrelevant positive results (e.g. when compared with rodent carcinogenicity). As reported in several recent reviews, the rate of irrelevant positives (i.e. low specificity) for some studies using in vitro methods (when compared to this "gold standard") means that an increased number of test articles are subjected to additional in vivo genotoxicity testing, in many cases before e.g. the efficacy (in the case of pharmaceuticals) of the compound has been evaluated. If in vitro tests were more predictive for in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity (i.e. fewer false positives) then there would be a significant reduction in the number of animals used. Beyond animal (or human) carcinogenicity as the "gold standard", it is acknowledged that genotoxicity tests provide much information about cellular behaviour, cell division processes and cellular fate to a (geno)toxic insult. Since the disease impact of these effects is seldomly known, and a verification of relevant toxicity is normally also the subject of (sub)chronic animal studies, the prediction of in vivo relevant results from in vitro genotoxicity tests is also important for aspects that may not have a direct impact on carcinogenesis as the ultimate endpoint of concern. In order to address the high rate of in vitro false positive results, a 2-day workshop was held at the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), Ispra, Italy in April 2006. More than 20 genotoxicity experts from academia, government and industry were invited to review data from the currently available cell systems, to discuss whether there exist cells and test systems that have a reduced tendency to false positive results, to review potential modifications to existing protocols and cell systems that might result in improved specificity, and to review the performance of some new test systems that show promise of improved specificity without sacrificing sensitivity.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection|
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