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|Title:||Measuring, Modelling and Testing Ozone Exposure, Flux and Effects on Vegetation in Southern European Conditions- What does not Work? A Review from Italy|
|Authors:||FERRETTI M.; FAGNANO M.; AMORIELLO T.; BADIANI M.; BALLARIN DENTI ANTONIO; BUFFONI A.; BUSSOTTI F.; CASTAGNA A.; CIESLIK STANISLAW; COSTANTINI A.; DE MARCO A.; GEROSA GIACOMO; LORENZINI G.; MANES F.; MEROLA. G.; NALI C.; PAOLETTI E.; PETRICCIONE B.; RACALBUTO S.; RANA G.; RANIERI A.; TAGLIFERRI A.; VIALETTO G.; VITALE MARCELLO|
|Citation:||ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION vol. 146 no. 3 p. 648-658|
|Publisher:||ELSEVIER SCI LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Ozone (O3) exposure at Italian background sites exceeds UN/ECE concentration-based critical levels (CLec), if expressed in terms of AOT40. Yet the occurrence of adverse effects of O3 on forests and crops is controversial. Possible reasons include (i) ability of response indicators to provide an unbiased estimate of O3 effects, (ii) setting of current CLec in terms of cut-off value and accumulation level, (iii) response functions adopted to infer a critical level, (iv) environmental limitation to O3 uptake and (v) inherent characteristics of Mediterranean vegetation. In particular, the two latter points suggest that critical levels based on accumulated stomatal flux (CLef) can be a better predictor of O3 risk than CLec. While this concept is largely acknowledged, a number of factors may limit its applicability for routine monitoring. This paper reviews levels, uptake and vegetation response to O3 in Italy over recent years to discuss value, uncertainty and feasibility of different approaches to risk assessment. While the flux-based approach is scientifically sounder, a more practical concentration-based approach is still necessary for routine monitoring.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Environment and Sustainability|
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