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|Title:||Chemical Respiratory Allergy: Opportunities for Hazard Identification and Characterisation - The Report and Recommendations of ECVAM Workshop 60|
|Authors:||KIMBER IAN; AGIUS Raymond; BASKETTER DAVID; CORSINI Emanuela; CULLINAN Paul; DEARMAN REBECCA; GIMENEZ-ARNAU Elena; GREENWELL Leonora; HARTUNG THOMAS; KUPER Frieke; MAESTRELLI Piero; ROGGEN Erwin; ROVIDA MARIA|
|Citation:||ATLA-ALTERNATIVES TO LABORATORY ANIMALS vol. 35 p. 243-265|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||This is the 60th Report of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). The main goal of ECVAM, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods that have scientific relevance and that reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first measures taken by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures that would enable it to become better informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures. The decision was taken that this would be best achieved by the organisation of ECVAM Workshops each addressing a specific topic, and at which selected groups of independent international experts would review the status of various types of in vitro tests and their potential application, and make recommendations about the best way forward. A workshop on Chemical Respiratory Allergy, chaired by Ian Kimber, was held at ECVAM from 11– 13 October 2006. Chemical respiratory allergy, typically associated with rhinitis and/or asthma, is considered to be an adverse health effect of high concern. For example, under the EU Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) system, respiratory sensitisers are included among substances of higher risk, together with CMRs (chemicals that are Carcinogenic, Mutagenic or toxic for Reproduction), and are regulated under Annex 1 of Directive 67/548/EEC, which contains a list of dangerous substances, including respiratory sensitisers. Although some animal methods (such as measurements of IgE antibody responses in mice, or specific pulmonary reactions in guinea-pigs) are mentioned in this Directive, these methods have not been validated, nor are they widely accepted by the scientific community. At present, chemical respiratory sensitisation hazard is assigned to chemicals on the basis of epidemiological evidence or, in the case of diisocyanates, as a default classification. Therefore, there is clearly a need to develop new and improved methods for hazard identification and characterisation, and it was the objective of this workshop to explore what opportunities might now be available.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection|
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