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|Title:||Factors Affecting Energy Efficiency of Waste-to-Energy Plants|
|Citation:||Energy Materials vol. 2 no. 3 p. 166-174|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Improvement of the energy efficiency of waste to energy plants demands ever closer attention in order that targets set to meet the challenges associated with climate change and security of energy supply can be adequately addressed. All renewable sources of energy are important to help minimise the environmental impact of the ever rising worldwide demand for energy. Waste to energy is seen as a significant contributor for both the short-to-medium and the long terms. However, to achieve the highest efficiency of conversion of waste to a useful form of energy, most importantly electricity, a number of materials and plant operation issues are critical. While strict environmental emissions limits impose a number of plant design and operating constraints, and at the same time cost a proportion of the gross energy recovered from the waste, various different forms of corrosion themselves impose severe technical limitations on the amount of energy that can be recovered in practice. Plants built to the highest specification with respect to corrosion resistance will invariably be very expensive as they include the use of high-alloy materials and surface coatings and claddings. Maintenance and materials replacement costs can also be very high if unplanned downtime is to be avoided. Plant stoppages, whether planned or not, reduce overall energy output through the loss of availability operating time. This paper reviews the major current challenges associated with efficient energy recovery from waste by thermal means. Included will be the selection of boiler materials, weld cladding of new components and weld cladding for repair, thermal spray coatings and their repair, refractories for corrosion protection and maintenance of required combustion temperature, on-line boiler cleaning and its impact on boiler integrity and heat transfer, process monitoring and combustion additives for boiler corrosion protection, and the impact of steam parameters on final energy production.|
|JRC Directorate:||Energy, Transport and Climate|
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