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|Title:||Intelligent Testing Strategies|
|Authors:||VAN LEEUWEN Cornelis Johannes (kees); TIER GRACE; WORTH ANDREW|
|Type:||Articles in books|
|Abstract:||In the context of regulatory programs for the safety evaluation of chemicals, there is a need for a paradigm shift. The challenge is to move in a scientifically credible and transparent manner from a paradigm that requires extensive hazard (animal) testing to one in which a hypothesis- and risk-driven approach can be used to identify the most relevant in vivo information . So-called Intelligent or Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) are a significant part of the solution to the challenge of carrying out hazard and risk assessments on large numbers of chemicals. ITS (Figure 11.1) are integrated approaches comprising multiple elements aimed at speeding up the risk assessment process while reducing costs and animal tests . In this chapter a short overview will be presented about ITS, its rationale (Section 11.1) and its components (Section 11.2). Although some components of ITS, such as in vitro methods, (Q)SARs and read-across are already in use, the development and regulatory application of ITS has only just started. The development and implementation of ITS is a major challenge for at least the next decade. Thus, it is not possible at this stage to provide examples of fully developed ITS. Instead, a few examples of preliminary ITS for a number of fate, toxicological and ecotoxicological endpoints are presented to illustrate their potential role in the assessment of chemicals (Section 11.3). Summary and concluding remarks are described in Section 11.4. Selected references for further reading are provided in Section 11.5.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection|
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