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|Title:||Water Framework Directive - The Way to Water Ecosystems Sustainability in Europe|
|Authors:||NOGES PEETER; POIKANE SANDRA; CARDOSO ANA; VAN DE BUND WOUTER|
|Citation:||LakeLine vol. 26 no. 1 p. 36-43|
|Publisher:||North American Lake Management Society|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||The Water Framework Directive (also known as the WFD or Directive 2000/60/EC), which entered into force at the end of 2000, is based on the concept of integrated river basin management and contributes to transboundary water management, even for countries outside of the European Union. The WFD Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) involves 25 EU member states, plus Bulgaria, Romania, Norway, Iceland, and Switzerland. The WFD aims at maintaining and improving the aquatic environment in the European Community and has set a target for member states to achieve ¿good ecological status¿ and ¿good surface water chemical status¿ in all bodies of surface water by 2015. Some water bodies may not achieve this objective. Under certain conditions water bodies can be designated Artificial Water Bodies (AWB, e.g., reservoirs) or Heavily Modified Water Bodies (HMWB) if they cannot meet the ¿good ecological status¿ because of physical alterations by human activity that have substantially changed their character. Instead of ¿good ecological status¿, the ¿good ecological potential¿ (GEP) has to be achieved for HMWB and for AWB by 2015. The assignment of less stringent objectives to water bodies and an extension of the timing for achieving the objectives are also possible when justifiable ¿ for example. if the cost of possible measures is too high in comparison to the degree of ecosystem recovery. The WFD will fundamentally change how water is monitored, assessed, and managed in Europe. It sets not only pollution limits but defines clear environmental and ecological objectives viewed from a holistic perspective. It covers all aquatic systems, including rivers and lakes, coastal waters, and groundwater.|
|JRC Institute:||Sustainable Resources|
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