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|Title:||Source Attribution of Urban Smog Episodes Caused by Coal Combustion|
|Authors:||MIRA-SALAMA Daniel; GRUENING CARSTEN; JENSEN NIELS; CAVALLI PAOLO; PUTAUD JEAN-PHILIPPE; LARSEN BO; RAES FRANK; COE Hugh|
|Citation:||ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH vol. 88 p. 294-304|
|Publisher:||ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Stable weather conditions together with extensive use of coal combustion often lead to severe smog episodes in certain urban environments, specially in Eastern Europe. In order to identify the specific sources that cause the smog episodes in such environments, and to better understand the mixing state and atmospheric processing of aerosols, both single particle and bulk chemical characterization analysis of aerosols were performed in Krakow, Poland, during winter 2005. Real-time measurements of the bulk PM10 aerosol during a severe smog episode (PM10 mass >400 ¿g/m3) showed a stable concentration of black carbon in the aerosol, and an increase in the sulphate and chlorine mass contributions towards the end of the episode. Chemical characterization of single particles further helped to identify residential coal burning as the main source that caused this severe smog episode, consisting of single particles with major signals for carbon with simultaneous absence of sulphate, chlorine and calcium. Particles from industrial coal combustion gained importance towards the end of that episode, after residential coal combustion was switched off, indicated by an increase of the percentage of sulphate and chlorine containing particles. Traffic was not a significant source during the severe smog episode. During a lighter smog episode, residential and industrial coal combustion were still predominant, with an increased contribution of traffic and processed/aged aerosols. On a clean day, particle classes containing nitrate were the most abundant. In addition, the aerosol was more internally mixed showing that there were more sources contributing to the total aerosol population.|
|JRC Institute:||Sustainable Resources|
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