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|Title:||GMO Testing Methods: Analytical Approaches, Method Validation and Sampling Strategy|
|Authors:||BELLOCCHI GIANNI; ERMOLLI MONICA; SAVINI CRISTIAN; VAN DEN EEDE GUY|
|Publisher:||DEStech Publications, Inc|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||The detection and the identification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in seeds, grains and other materials are driven by legal requirements and marketing demands. In the EU ¿food and feed¿ Regulations [Reg. (EC) No 1829/2003, Reg. (EC) No 1830/2003] require compulsory labeling for all GMO-derived products including bulk commodities, seeds both for human consumption and animal feeding. The ¿food and feed¿ Regulation sets to 0.9% the threshold for the adventitious presence of authorized GMO-derived materials and 0% for non-authorized GMOs. In order to test the amount of GMOs in a consistent and reproducible way suitable analytical methods are required. Moreover, mandatory labeling is also required for those products where GMO-derived DNA or proteins are no longer detectable as for highly refined oils. In addition, traceability of GMOs has to be guaranteed in all products produced from GMOs at all stages of their placing on the market through the production and distribution chain¿ as required by Reg. (EC) No 1830/2003. In the process of GMO authorization an event-specific method for detection and identification of the transformation event must be provided by the applicants to the competent Authorities. In such respect, the Community Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed (CRL-GMFF) (established by Reg. (EC) No 1830/2003), has the mandate to validate the methods provided by the GMOs producers (http://gmo-crl.jrc.it/). All the CRL-GMFF validated methods are published in the GM Register (http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/biotechnology/authorisation/index_en.htm). Other methods for detection of GMOs are annexed to international standards (ISO 21569:2005, ISO 21570:2005, ISO 21572:2005). In this respect, and as a measure to implement legislation and facilitate stakeholders in quick retrieval of methods, a comprehensive database of methods has been established and maintained at Biotechnology and GMOs Unit of the European Commission¿s Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP), aimed at the diffusion of information on validated methods for detection and quantification of GMOs (http://biotech.jrc.it/methodsdatabase.htm).|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection|
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