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|Title:||A Descriptive Analysis of Conventional, Organic and GM Crop and Certified Seed Production in the EU|
|Authors:||CEDDIA Michele; RODRIGUEZ CEREZO EMILIO|
|Other Identifiers:||EUR 23443 EN|
|Type:||EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports|
|Abstract:||Recently, the introduction of GM crops and GM seeds in agricultural production in the EU and elsewhere has raised the issue of adventitious presence of GM seeds in conventional seed lots. Article 21(2) of Directive 2001/18/EC provides that for products where adventitious or technically unavoidable traces of authorised GMOs cannot be excluded, a minimum threshold may be established below which the products shall not have to be labelled in accordance with the provisions of the Directive. In the absence of such thresholds, which is the current status of seed production, the legislation requires the labelling of conventional seed lots which contain any detectable adventitious traces of GM seeds (which have been authorised for cultivation under Community legislation) (Directive 2001/18/EC). The legal requirement is not new and has been in place since labelling provisions were introduced under Directive 90/220/EEC and maintained under Directive 2001/18/EC (which replaced Directive 90/220/EEC). It remains illegal to place on the market conventional seed lots that contain GM seeds that have not been approved for cultivation. This has been the case since Directive 90/220/EEC entered into force in 1991. The Commission is currently examining the possibility to establish thresholds and the impact associated with the introduction of different threshold values, as regards to agronomic (technical) feasibility of production and to economic impacts for seed producers, farmers, food and feed producers, and the necessary freedom of choice between genetically modified, conventional and organic crops. In this context, understanding the current status and likely evolution of crop and seed production in the EU is necessary as a basis to carry any further assessment of the effects of the regulation of adventitious GM presence in seeds. Understanding the likely distribution of GM commercial crop and GM seed production in the EU is also important when looking at the adventitious presence of GM material in conventional seeds. Data on the likely adoption and regional distribution of GM crops in the EU for short-medium term could be significant for this purpose. The aim of this study is to gather basic information/data on the EU crop and seed production for a number of crops. The crops under considerations are maize, sugar beet/fodder beet, cotton, oilseed rape, soybean and potato. Data will refer to conventional, GM and organic varieties. With respect to seed production, in the present study (given the time constraint) the attention will be focused on certified seeds. Also the study will focus on commercial seed production, therefore excluding farm saved seeds from the analysis. Given these premises, the study's objectives entail: ¿ Collection of data on volume, acreage and trade of crops in EU 25 and major trading partners (e.g. U.S.) and identification and analysis of main changes over time and analysis of future developments. ¿ Collection of data on volume, acreage and trade of certified seed production in relevant Member States, analysis of main changes over time and identification of main future developments in key MS. ¿ Identification of main seed producing regions in the EU and collection of information/data relative to the potential adoption by farmers of GM varieties of the above mentioned crops in these regions.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Prospective Technological Studies|
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