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|Title:||Chemical Emissions from Toys - The Case of Stink Blasters|
|Authors:||BARRERO JOSEFA; GEISS OTMAR; KOTZIAS DIMITRIOS; TIRENDI SALVATORE|
|Citation:||The 35th International Symposium on Environmental Analytical Chemistry - Book of Abstract p. 55|
|Publisher:||Department of Analytical Chemistry - Chemistry Faculty - Gdansk University of Technology (GUT)|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||In the last years several communications to the Rapid Alarm System for non food products (RAPEX) were issued1 concerning the presence of cyclohexanone in stink blasters (toys emitting characteristic smell after squeezing) and its possible impact on human health. The scope of the present study was to identify and quantify the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from this kind of toys and to evaluate possible health risks, in particular for children. Although the stink blasters are intended for outdoor use, a hypothetical indoor use (e.g. use by children in closed environments) has been considered relevant for exposure assessment studies. Specimens for testing were bought in a local market and are similar to the products mentioned in the RAPEX notification. The toys analyzed (following extraction with methanol) contain less than 0.2% by weight of cyclohexanone. Cyclohexanone was found in the sponge and the head of the toy (causing the characteristic smell, when squeezed) but also in the body. In addition to these preliminary experiments and in order to evaluate air exposure to cyclohexanone, the stink blasters were placed in the Indoortron facility, a walk-in type environmental chamber of 30 m3 volume featuring automatic control of parameters such as temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and air change rates (ach), and tested for emissions after squeezing several times under ¿real world setting¿ conditions (22 C, 50% RH, 0.5 ach). By this, the main compounds emitted were cyclohexanone and toluene with concentrations reaching values to 25 ug/m3 and 32 ug/m3 respectively. These concentrations are much lower than the indicative occupational exposure limit values of 40 mg/m3 for cyclohexanone and 192 mg/m3 for toluene2. However, within the frame of this study it is not possible to evaluate possible health effects, which might be expected from a chronic exposure to the aforementioned chemicals at low doses.  Rapex archive at: http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/dyna/rapex/create_rapex.cfm?rx_id=23  Commission Directive 2006/15/EC establishing a second list of indicative occupational exposure limit values in implementation of Council Directive 98/24/EC amending Directives 91/322/EEC and 2000/39/EC of 7 February 2006|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection Historical Collection|
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