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|Title:||Chemical Emissions from Toys - the Case of Stink Blasters|
|Authors:||TIRENDI Salvatore; GEISS Otmar; BARRERO Josefa; KOTZIAS Dimitrios|
|Citation:||INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY vol. 89 no. 8-12 p. 929-938|
|Publisher:||TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD|
|Type:||Articles in Journals|
|Abstract:||The present study was conducted to characterise and quantify the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can be released into the air from stink blasters, a particular toy with human shape that releases malodorous substances after squeezing the head, and to evaluate possible health risks, in particular for children. Several notifications to the Rapid Alarm System for Non Food Products (RAPEX) were issued for the presence of cyclohexanone, a neurotoxic compound, in stink blasters. RAPEX is a system for the rapid exchange of information within the European Union on the dangers arising from consumer products, used by member states to communicate products that do not comply with EU legislation. Although the stink blasters are intended for outdoor use, a hypothetical indoor use (e.g. a child¿s room) has been considered relevant for exposure assessment studies. The emissions of the items were investigated in environmental chambers and their content by chemical extraction. In addition to these preliminary experiments and in order to evaluate air exposure to cyclohexanone, the stink blasters were placed in the Indoortron facility, a 30m3 volume walk-in type environmental chamber, and tested for emissions after squeezing several times under ¿real world setting¿ conditions (23°C, 50% RH, 0.5 ach). The amount of chemicals released were determined by comparison of two different techniques by time series analysis of the air inside the chamber sampled on Tenax TA tube and DNPH cartridges, followed by thermal desorption combined with analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and HPLC-UV respectively. The resulting main compounds emitted were cyclohexanone and toluene, with concentrations reaching values of 25 mg/m3 and 32 mg/m3 respectively. However, within the frame of this study it is not possible to evaluate possible health effects which might be expected from a chronic exposure to the aforementioned chemicals at low doses.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection|
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