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|Title:||Atmospheric Occurrence and Deposition of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the Open Mediterranean Sea|
|Authors:||CASTRO JIMENEZ Javier; EISENREICH Steven; GHIANI Michela; MARIANI Giulio; SKEJO Helle; UMLAUF Gunther; WOLLGAST Jan; ZALDIVAR COMENGES Jose'; BERROJALBIZ Naiara; REUTER H.i.; DACHS Jordi|
|Citation:||ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY vol. 44 no. 14 p. 5456-5463|
|Publisher:||AMER CHEMICAL SOC|
|Type:||Articles in Journals|
|Abstract:||There is an increasing global concern regarding the presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the marine environment due to their adverse health effects in biota and humans. Prove of that is that PCDD/Fs have been included as priority for monitoring and impact assessment in the marine environment in the main international programmes such as, OSPAR, HELCOM, and the Barcelona Convection. However, very few experimental data on PCDD/Fs ambient levels and behaviour far from the shore line (open seas) have been reported up-to-date and no data is available for the Mediterranean Sea to our knowledge. In addition, atmospheric input has been identified as one of the PCDD/Fs sources to marine environments. In this work the first results form two singular experimental campaign across the Mediterranean Sea on board of the oceanographic vessel B/O Garcia del Cid (CSIC) performed in 2006 and 2007. PCDD/F (¿17 toxic congeners) ambient air concentrations (particulate + gas phase) along the Mediterranean Sea ranged from 114 to 813 fg m-3 (3-7 WHO98-TEQ fg m-3). The one sample transect collected at Marmara and Black Seas exhibited a higher PCDD/F concentration of 1555 fg m-3 (15 WHO98-TEQ fg m-3). Congener patterns obtained showed in general a predominance of the higher chlorinated dioxins (HpCDD and OCDD). Concentrations were low but in general higher that those reported for some background/remote or pristine areas around the world. Analyses of water samples, also collected during the campaign, are underway and will help to complete the multi-media picture and better understand the current status of contamination of this marine environment by PCDD/Fs.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Environment and Sustainability|
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