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|Title:||The Role of Cities in Achieving the EU Targets on Biofuels for Transportation: The Cases of Berlin, London, Milan and Helsinki|
|Authors:||SILVESTRINI Alessandra; MONNI Suvi; PREGERNIG Michael; BARBATO Anna; DALLEMAND Jean-Francois; CROCI Eduardo; RAES Frank|
|Citation:||TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART A-POLICY AND PRACTICE vol. 44 no. 6 p. 403-417|
|Publisher:||PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Road transportation is a strongly growing source of CO2, and use of biofuels is the only measure to reduce end-of-pipe emissions of the existing car fleet. In this contribution, the implementation of the EU Biofuels Directive (2003/30/EC) and related voluntary measures at the local level are examined in Germany, UK, Italy and Finland and the cities of Berlin, London, Milan and Helsinki. Even though they are not directly involved in the implementation of the biofuel directive, all four cities studied have played an important role in emissions reduction by voluntarily participating in research and demonstration projects and by using biofuels in their own fleet. An analysis of the numerous causes and driving forces leading to different local level measures is provided. The environmental sensitivity, usually examined at national level, and the national level implementation of the EU Biofuels Directive (2003/30/EC) were not directly correlated with the city level activities Instead, support from local businesses and acquisition of EU funds were considered to be valid explanatory factors for the city level activities. In addition, through horizontal networking cities are starting to exchange know-how gained in their projects, contributing in this way to the accumulation of experience for future policies and technologies.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Environment and Sustainability|
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