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|Title:||Food Contact Materials (Chapter 21)|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||The supply of safe and high-quality foodstuffs relies on the efficient protection of food from deterioration. This can often be achieved simply by food packaging, which can offer mechanical, chemical and biological protection against contamination and extends shelf life of the product. This protection must extend from abuse from macro- or microorganisms, to the control of the transfer of gas/ vapour, moisture, radiation and chemical interaction such as migration. The term ¿¿food contact materials¿¿ (FCMs) refers to all materials and articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs, including not only packaging materials but also cutlery, dishes, processing machines, containers, etc. The term also includes materials and articles that are in contact with water intended for human consumption but it does not cover fixed public or private water supply equipment. Many types of materials can be used for food packaging ranging from plastics, regenerated cellulose, paper and board (P&B), glass and ceramics, elastomers (natural and synthetic rubbers), metals, wood, textile, waxes, etc. Recent years have seen the appearance and evolution of new materials such as biobased or active and intelligent packaging. The prevention of contamination of food by the packaging intended to protect is the object of constant research and regulations in the European Union (EU) and such FCMs are the objects of specific legislations. Various chemical ingredients can be used for the manufacture of FCMs. Those chemicals must comply with many chemical criteria to ensure that packaged foods are safe to consumers. Substances used in the manufacture of FCMs are regulated with maximum limits that may migrate into foodstuffs without causing any health concerns. The harmonization and implementation of food legislation is a major task, which requires scientific and technical consensus among Member States, such as on validated reference methods and materials for quality and safety controls. FCMs need to be tested for compliance with migration limits. Appropriate methodologies are crucial for both industrial and enforcement testing of compliance with the law. Testing compliance in anticipation, conception and implementation of policies for consumer protection also requires adequate reference materials and substances to be used as calibrants in the development of performant methods. Finally, the integration of new Member States also highlights an increasing need for mutual recognition and comparability between laboratories to facilitate a single market and for fostering free trade. The purpose of this chapter is to review the nature of the various potential migrants from FCMs and the implications on their extraction, identification and quantification|
|JRC Directorate:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection Historical Collection|
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