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|Title:||Seasonality of PCDD/Fs in Ambient Air of Malopolska Region, Southern Poland|
|Authors:||UMLAUF Gunther; CHRISTOPH Helmut Eugen; MARIANI Giulio; EISENREICH Steven; PARADIZ Bostjan; VIVES RUBIO Ingrid|
|Citation:||ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH vol. 17 no. 2 p. 462-469|
|Type:||Articles in Journals|
|Abstract:||Purpose: The aim of the study was to identify the impact PCDD/F emission sources on ambient air concentrations in Malopolska Region, southern Poland. Three sites were selected: city center of Krakow (Aleje), an industrial area (Nova Huta) and a rural site (Zakopane). In order to investigate the annual variations of PCDD/F sources, summer and winter time samples were taken. Sampling and analytical methods: Ambient air particulate matter (PM10) was collected using an Anderson High Volume sampler during June and December 2002 in the three mentioned sites. Analysis of PCDD/Fs was based on isotope dilution using high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) for quantification. Results: Total concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in air particulate phase from Malopolska region ranged from 0.6 to 37 pg m-3 (0.04-3.2 pg WHO98-TEQ m-3, 0.037-2.9 pg I-TEQ m-3). Higher PCDD/F concentrations were measured at all three sites during winter. A linear correlation among PCDD/F concentrations, B(a)P and PM10 concentrations was found in Aleje and Zakopane, which suggested that all compounds were originating from the same source, solid fuel domestic heating. Instead, PCDD/F levels in Nova Huta did not correlate with the seasonality of B(a)P or PM10 levels and 2,3,7,8-PCDD/F congener patterns for this site were significantly different from the other sites. Conclusions: Domestic solid fuel combustion is likely the main PCDD/F source in winter in this part of Poland for urban and rural sites. PCDD/F fingerprints in the industrial site remained almost identical during summer and winter, confirming the yearly prevalence of the emissions from the nearby metal industry.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Environment and Sustainability|
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