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|Title:||A Map of European Emissions and Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA|
|Authors:||PISTOCCHI Alberto; LOOS Robert|
|Citation:||ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY vol. 43 no. 24 p. 9237-9244|
|Publisher:||AMER CHEMICAL SOC|
|JRC Publication N°:||JRC50203|
|Type:||Articles in Journals|
|Abstract:||A spatially distributed dataset of measured concentrations of perfluorooctansulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was used, together with climatologically averages of river flow, to estimate their overall aqueous emissions from the European Continent. This estimate relies on the assumption that PFOA/S are conservative chemicals. PFOS correlates rather well with river basin population, and its emissions can be estimated by regression also for non-monitored catchments. Such regression equation has been derived both in linear and log-linear form, the latter explaining a much higher portion of variance. Unlike PFOS, PFOA discharges are strongly influenced by point emissions from industrial facilities; they are correlated with catchment population only below a threshold of 0.5 tons per year, which indicates point industrial emissions that cannot be neglected in the estimation of PFOA loads. The lumped loads of PFOA from diffuse and point sources are reasonably described by a single log-linear regression model as a function of population in the catchment, likely owing to the fact that in highly populated catchments fluoropolymer industries are more frequent as well. Overall, by using the log-linear models derived in this paper, PFOS and PFOA discharges along the whole European river network to coastal areas in Europe have been estimated for the year 2007 to be in the order of 20 and 30 tons per year, respectively.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Environment and Sustainability|
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