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|Title:||Chemical emissions from toys - the case of stink blasters|
|Authors:||TIRENDI Salvatore; GEISS Otmar; BARRERO Josefa; KOTZIAS Dimitrios|
|Citation:||INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY vol. 89 no. 8-12 p. 929-938|
|Publisher:||TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||The aim of the present study was to characterise and quantify the emissions of volatile organic compounds that can be released into the air from stink blasters (a toy in human shape that releases malodorous substances after squeezing the head) and to evaluate possible health risks, particularly for children. Although the stink blasters are intended for outdoor use, a hypothetical indoor use (e.g. a child¿s room) has been considered relevant for exposure assessment studies. The emissions of the items were investigated in environmental chambers and their content was assessed by chemical extraction. In addition to these preliminary experiments and in order to evaluate airborne exposure to cyclohexanone, the stink blasters were placed in the Indoortron facility, a 30m3 volume walk-in type environmental chamber, and tested for emissions after squeezing several times under ¿real world setting¿ conditions (23C, 50% relative humidity, 0.5 air changes per hour). The amount of chemicals released was determined by applying two different techniques and time series analysis of the air inside the chamber sampled on Tenax TA tubes and DNPH cartridges, followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry and HPLC¿UV, respectively. The main resulting compounds emitted were cyclohexanone and toluene, with concentrations reaching values of 25 and 32 mgm3, respectively. These levels are much lower than established permissible exposure limits. Measured toluene levels are also below the chronic inhalation reference limit value (300 mgm3) set for this compound by the California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal EPA). However, such a value is not set for cyclohexanone, so attention should be given to chronic exposures at low concentration levels, in particular for sensitive sub-groups such as children.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection|
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