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|Title:||Chemical Characterization of Emissions from Modern Two-Stroke Mopeds Complying with Legislative Regulation in Europe (EURO-2)|
|Authors:||ADAM Thomas; FARFALETTI Arianna; MONTERO Larisse; MARTINI Giorgio; MANFREDI Urbano; LARSEN Bo; DE SANTI Giovanni; KRASENBRINK Alois; ASTORGA-LLORENS Maria|
|Citation:||ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY vol. 44 no. 1 p. 505-512|
|Publisher:||AMER CHEMICAL SOC|
|Type:||Articles in Journals|
|Abstract:||In view of a new amendment to the European legislative regulation on emissions from two-stroke mopeds a study was carried out to comprehensively characterize exhaust gases of mopeds complying current EURO-2 emission standards. Three different engine types (carburator, direct injection, and electronic carburation system ECS) where investigated by applying two different driving cycles, the legislative cycle ECE47 and the worldwide motorcycle test cycle WMTC. Thereby, particulate matter (PM), regulated compounds, carbonyls, volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), and particle-associated polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were analyzed and ozone formation potentials (OFP) as well as toxicity equivalents (TEQ) determined. The ECE47 emission factors for almost all species and moped types were much higher in the non-regulated, prior cold phase than in the hot phase, which is considered for legislation. Great differences for engine types could be observed for NOx, VOC, and PM, whereas discrepancies between the driving cycles ECE47 and WMTC were smaller. In addition, a positive influence on exhaust composition caused by technical modifications of the ECS engine was determined. Results indicate that regulation of total hydrocarbons (THC) alone might not be sufficient to regulate PM, especially for direct injection engines. Moreover, recommendations for a revised future test protocol are demonstrated and discussed, whereby the cold phase and the hot phase are taken into account.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Energy and Transport|
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