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|Title:||Quantifying the Impact of Residential Heating on the Urban Air Quality in a Typical European Coal Combustion Region|
|Authors:||JUNNINEN Heiki; MOENSTER Jacob; REY Maria; CANCELINHA Jose; DOUGLAS Kevin; DUANE Matthew; FORCINA Vittorio; MUELLER Anne; LAGLER Friedrich; MARELLI Luisa; BOROWIAK Annette; NIEDZIALEK Joanna; MIRA-SALAMA D.; PARADIZ Bostjian; JIMENEZ Jose; HANSEN Ute; ASTORGA-LLORENS Maria; STANCZYK Krzysztof; VIANA Maria Del Mar; QUEROL Xavier; DUVALL J. R. M.; NORRIS Gregory; TSAKOVSKI S.; WAHLIN P.; HORAK J.; LARSEN Bo|
|Citation:||ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY vol. 43 no. 20 p. 7964-7970|
|Publisher:||AMER CHEMICAL SOC|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||The present investigation, carried out as a case study in a typical major city situated in a European coal combustion region (Krakow, Poland), aims at quantifying the impact on the urban air quality of residential heating by coal combustion in comparison with other potential pollution sources such as power plants, industry and traffic. Emissions were measured for 20 major sources; including small stoves and boilers, and the particulate matter (PM) was analyzed for 52 individual compounds together with outdoor and indoor PM10 collected during typical winter pollution episodes. The data was analyzed using chemical mass balance modeling (CMB) and constrained positive matrix factorization (CMF) yielding source apportionments for PM10, B(a)P and other regulated air pollutants namely Cd, Ni, As, and Pb. The results are potentially very useful for planning abatement strategies in all areas of the world, where coal combustion in small appliances is significant. During the studied pollution episodes in Krakow, European air quality limits were exceeded with up to a factor 8 for PM10 and up to a factor 200 for B(a)P. The levels of these air pollutants were accompanied by high concentrations of azaarenes, known markers for inefficient coal combustion. The major culprit for the extreme pollution levels was demonstrated to be residential heating by coal combustion in small stoves and boilers (>50% for PM10 and >90% B(a)P), whereas road transport (<10% for PM10 and <3% for B(a)P), and industry (4-15% for PM10 and <6% for B(a)P) played a lesser role. The indoor PM10 and B(a)P concentrations were at similar high levels as outdoor concentrations and were found to have the same sources as outdoors. The inorganic secondary aerosol component of PM10 amounted to around 30%, which for a large part may be attributed to the industrial emission of the precursors SO2 and NOX.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection|
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