Title: Quantifying the Impact of Residential Heating on the Urban Air Quality in a Typical European Coal Combustion Region
Authors: JUNNINEN HeikiMOENSTER JacobREY MariaCANCELINHA JoseDOUGLAS KevinDUANE MatthewFORCINA VittorioMUELLER AnneLAGLER FriedrichMARELLI LuisaBOROWIAK AnnetteNIEDZIALEK JoannaMIRA-SALAMA D.PARADIZ BostjianJIMENEZ JoseHANSEN UteASTORGA-LLORENS MariaSTANCZYK KrzysztofVIANA Maria Del MarQUEROL XavierDUVALL J. R. M.NORRIS GregoryTSAKOVSKI S.WAHLIN P.HORAK J.LARSEN Bo
Citation: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY vol. 43 no. 20 p. 7964-7970
Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Publication Year: 2009
JRC Publication N°: JRC54761
ISSN: 0013-936X
URI: http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC54761
DOI: 10.1021/es8032082
Type: Articles in Journals
Abstract: The present investigation, carried out as a case study in a typical major city situated in a European coal combustion region (Krakow, Poland), aims at quantifying the impact on the urban air quality of residential heating by coal combustion in comparison with other potential pollution sources such as power plants, industry and traffic. Emissions were measured for 20 major sources; including small stoves and boilers, and the particulate matter (PM) was analyzed for 52 individual compounds together with outdoor and indoor PM10 collected during typical winter pollution episodes. The data was analyzed using chemical mass balance modeling (CMB) and constrained positive matrix factorization (CMF) yielding source apportionments for PM10, B(a)P and other regulated air pollutants namely Cd, Ni, As, and Pb. The results are potentially very useful for planning abatement strategies in all areas of the world, where coal combustion in small appliances is significant. During the studied pollution episodes in Krakow, European air quality limits were exceeded with up to a factor 8 for PM10 and up to a factor 200 for B(a)P. The levels of these air pollutants were accompanied by high concentrations of azaarenes, known markers for inefficient coal combustion. The major culprit for the extreme pollution levels was demonstrated to be residential heating by coal combustion in small stoves and boilers (>50% for PM10 and >90% B(a)P), whereas road transport (<10% for PM10 and <3% for B(a)P), and industry (4-15% for PM10 and <6% for B(a)P) played a lesser role. The indoor PM10 and B(a)P concentrations were at similar high levels as outdoor concentrations and were found to have the same sources as outdoors. The inorganic secondary aerosol component of PM10 amounted to around 30%, which for a large part may be attributed to the industrial emission of the precursors SO2 and NOX.
JRC Institute:Institute for Health and Consumer Protection

Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.


Items in repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.