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|Title:||Hydrocarbon Emission Fingerprints from Contemporary Vehicle/Engine Technologies with Conventional and new Fuels|
|Authors:||MONTERO Larisse; DUANE Matthew; MANFREDI Urbano; ASTORGA-LLORENS Maria; MARTINI Giorgio; CARRIERO Massimo; KRASENBRINK Alois; LARSEN Bo|
|Citation:||ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT vol. 44 no. 18 p. 2167-2175|
|Publisher:||PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||The present paper presents results from the analysis of 29 individual C2-C9 hydrocarbons (HCs) specified in the European Commission Ozone Directive. The 29 HCs are measured in exhaust from common, contemporary vehicle/engine/fuel technologies for which very little or no data is available in the literature. The obtained HC emission fingerprints are compared with fingerprints deriving from technologies that are being phased out in Europe. Based on the total of 138 emission tests, thirteen type-specific fingerprints are extracted (Mean ± SD percentage contributions from individual HCs to the total mass of the 29 HCs), essential for receptor modelling source apportionment. The different types represent exhaust from Euro3 and Euro4 light duty (LD) diesel and petrol vehicles, Euro 3 heavy duty (HD) diesel exhaust, and exhaust from 2-stroke preEuro, Euro1 and Euro2 mopeds. The fuels comprise liquefied petroleum gas, petrol/ethanol blends (0-85% ethanol), and mineral diesel in various blends (0-100%) with fatty acid methyl esters, rapeseed methyl esters palm oil methyl esters, soybean oil methyl or sunflower oil methyl esters. Type specific tracer compounds (markers) are identified for the various vehicle/engine/fuel technologies. An important finding is an insignificant effect on the HC fingerprints of varying the test driving cycle, indicating that combining HC fingerprints from different emission studies for receptor modelling purposes would be a robust approach. The obtained results are discussed in the context of atmospheric ozone formation and health implications from emissions (mg km-1 for LD and mopeds and mg kWh-1 for HD, all normalised to fuel consumption: mg dm-3 fuel) of the harmful HCs, benzene and 1,3-butadiene. Another important finding is a strong linear correlation of the regulated ¿total¿ hydrocarbon emissions (tot-HC) with the ozone formation potential of the 29 HCs (¿PO3 = (1.66±0.04) x tot-RH; r2=0.91-0.95). Tot-HC is routinely monitored in emission control laboratories, whereas C2-C9 are not. The revealed strong correlations broadens the usability of data from vehicle emission control laboratories and facilitates the comparison of the ozone formation potential of HCs in exhaust from of old and new vehicle/engine/fuel technologies.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection|
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