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|Title:||A Model to Evaluate Biological Effects from Combined Exposure to UVA/B Radiation and Toluene|
|Authors:||SACCO Maria-Grazia; PARISELLI Fabrizio; REMBGES Diana|
|Citation:||FRESENIUS ENVIRONMENTAL BULLETIN vol. 19 no. 8a p. 1537-1543|
|Publisher:||PARLAR SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS (P S P)|
|Type:||Articles in Journals|
|Abstract:||Human keratinocytes (HaCaT), the major epidermis cell type, were exposed simultaneously to UVA/B radiation and to toluene/air mixture to assess the biological effects of combined exposure to common chemical and physical agents. As toluene is highly volatile, the exposure was performed with a fumigation device (CULTEX®) which allows the direct contact of gas vapor with cell surface, without medium interference. The effects obtained with single agent treatments were enhanced by their combination, as evaluated with different endpoint measurements: a toluene concentration of 5 ppmv induced an increase of cytotoxicity (measured by LDH release) which was enhanced by UVA/B pre-irradiation of the cells. Exposure to a combination of chemical and physical stressors leads to a further modification of the inflammatory response profile (IL-8, MCP-1 measurements), an increase of the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS evaluation) and persistent DNA damage (determined by comet assay) without repair.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection|
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