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|Title:||Determination of the Risk due to Explosions in Railway Systems|
|Authors:||LARCHER Martin; CASADEI Folco; GIANNOPOULOS Georgios; SOLOMOS George; PLANCHET Jean-Luc; ROCHEFRETTE Anne|
|Citation:||PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART F-JOURNAL OF RAIL AND RAPID TRANSIT vol. 225 no. 4 p. 373-382|
|Publisher:||PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING PUBLISHING LTD|
|Type:||Articles in Journals|
|Abstract:||Land mass transport systems have an open architecture and are vulnerable to terrorist attacks. In case of an explosion inside trains or stations, the risk of injuries and fatalities may be mitigated by properly strengthening and optimizing these structures. This risk depends on the peak over-pressure and impulse, which are here estimated using numerical simulations, and is determined by special probit functions using the pressure-time curve calculated at each fluid point. The geometry of the structures investigated is obtained using a 3D laser scanning technology. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) calculations have been performed, and for long, tube-like trains channelling effects have been considered. Several materials are used to describe the structural part of the models. A special FSI technique is presented, whereby a structure can be embedded in a fluid mesh without connection to the fluid nodes. This procedure avoids problems after the element erosion due to failure of the structure, e.g. of the glass. The results of case studies are shown in terms of structural displacements and the risk inside a metro line station, a train carriage, and a long train. The effects of venting areas, internal obstacles, like seats, and passengers themselves onto the air blast wave and on the associated risk are examined and assessed.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen|
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