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|Title:||Interlaboratory Comparison Exercise for the Determination of As, Cd, Ni and Pb in PM10 in Europe|
|Authors:||GERBOLES Michel; BUZICA D.; BROWN R. J. C.; YARDLEY R.; HANUS-ILLNAR A.; SALFINGER M.; VALLANT B.; ADRIAENSSENS E.; CLAEYS N.; ROEKENS E.; SEGA G.; JURASOVIC J.; RYCHLIK S.; RABINAK E.; TANET Gerard; PASSARELLA Rosanna; PEDRONI Valerio; KARLSSON V.; ALLEMAN L.; PFEFFER Ulrich; GLADTKE D.; OLSCHEWSKI A.; O’LEARY B.; O’DWYER M.; POCKEVICIUTE D.; BIEL-CWIKOWSKA J.; TURSIC J.|
|Citation:||ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT vol. 45 no. 20 p. 3488-3499|
|Publisher:||PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||This paper presents the results of an intercomparison exercise for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in PM10 which are regulated by the European Directives for ambient air quality. Thirteen laboratories participated, generally using the European reference methods of measurements which consist of a microwave digestion followed by analysis with ICP-MS or GF-AAS. Each participant was asked to analyse five test samples: a liquid Certified Reference Material (CRM), two sub-samples of a NIST dust CRM (one already digested and one to be digested by the participants) and two loaded filters (one already digested and one to be digested by the participants). Participants were able to reach the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) of the European Directives (uncertainty of 25 % for Pb and 40 % for As, Cd and Ni) for 93 % of all test samples except for the loaded filter that they had to digest by themselves. In fact, only 76 % of DQOs were met for this test sample, the closest to a routine sample analysis in the laboratory. The difficulties in analysing this test sample came from digestion, preparation and contamination processes mainly. Satisfactory results were also obtained using other digestion techniques (Soxhlet extraction and high pressure methods) and analytical methods (ICP-OES for Cd, Ni and Pb, EDXRF for Pb and Ni or Voltammetry for As, Ni, and Pb). Participants claimed uncertainties of about 10 % for Pb and between 15 and 20 % for As, Cd and Ni. These uncertainties were confirmed for 77 % of results. The reproducibility of the methods of measurements was between 41 and 54 % while repeatability remained between 5 and 12 % except for the analysis of As on filter which was up to 20 %. A majority of participant results showed higher between-day variability (14 ± 11 %) than within-day variability (6.0 ± 5.3 %).|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Energy and Transport|
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