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|Title:||On the Use of Hydrogen in Confined Spaces - Results from the Internal Project InsHyde|
|Authors:||VENETSANOS Alexandros; ADAMS Paul; AZKARATE Inaki; BENGAOUER Alain; BRETT Lois; CARCASSI Marco; ENGEBO Angunn; GALLEGO Eduardo; GAVRIKOV Andrej; HANSEN Olav; HAWKSWORTH Stuart; JORDAN Thomas; KESSLER Armin; KUMAR S.; MOLKOV Vladimir; NILSEN Sandra; REINECKE Ernst-Arendt; STOCKLIN M.; SCHMIDTCHEN Ulrich; TEODORCZYK Andrzej; TIGREAT Delphine; VERSLOOT Nico|
|Citation:||INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY vol. 36 no. 3 p. 2693-2699|
|Publisher:||PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||The paper presents an overview of the main achievements of the internal project InsHyde of the HySafe NoE. The scope of InsHyde was to investigate realistic small-medium indoor hydrogen leaks and provide recommendations for the safe use/storage of indoor hydrogen systems. Additionally, InsHyde served to integrate proposals from HySafe work packages and existing external research projects towards a common effort. Following a state of the art review, InsHyde activities expanded into experimental and simulation work. Dispersion experiments were performed using hydrogen and helium at the INERIS gallery facility to evaluate short and long term dispersion patterns in garage like settings. A new facility (GARAGE) was built at CEA and dispersion experiments were performed there using helium to evaluate hydrogen dispersion under highly controlled conditions. In parallel, combustion experiments were performed by FZK to evaluate the maximum amount of hydrogen that could be safely ignited indoors. The combustion experiments were extended later on by KI at their test site, by considering the ignition of larger amounts of hydrogen in obstructed environments outdoors. An evaluation of the performance of commercial hydrogen detectors as well as inter-lab calibration work was jointly performed by JRC, INERIS and BAM. Simulation work was as intensive as the experimental work with participation from most of the partners. It included pre-test simulations, validation of the available CFD codes against previously performed experiments with significant CFD code inter-comparisons, as well as CFD application to investigate specific realistic scenarios. Additionally an evaluation of permeation issues was performed by VOLVO, CEA, NCSRD and UU, by combining theoretical, computational and experimental approaches with the results being presented to key automotive regulations and standards groups. Finally, the InsHyde project concluded with a public document providing initial guidance on the use of hydrogen in confined spaces.|
|JRC Directorate:||Energy, Transport and Climate|
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