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|Title:||Application of Modern On-line Instrumentation for Chemical Analysis of Gas Phase and Particulate Phases of Exhaust at the European Commission Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emission Laboratory|
|Authors:||ADAM Thomas W.; CHIRICO Roberto; CLAIROTTE MICHAEL; ELSSASER M.; MANFREDI Urbano; MARTINI Giorgio; SKLORZ M.; STREIBEL T.; HERINGA M.f.; DE CARLO Peter; BALTENSPERGER Urs; DE SANTI Giovanni; KRASENBRINK Alois; ZIMMERMANN R.; PREVOT Andre S. H.; ASTORGA-LLORENS Maria|
|Citation:||JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY vol. 83 no. 1 p. 67-76|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables to study the energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas phase and the particulate phase of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier-transformation infrared spectrometer (FTIR: carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS: monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For the analysis of the particulate phase a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS: organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC: particle number), and a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP: black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. Goal was the simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results e.g. emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel as well as related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified, which follow the fuel consumption, others showing a very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel) and high speed events resulted in unique emission patterns.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Energy and Transport|
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