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|Title:||Problems and challenges in the development and validation of human cell-based assays to determine nanoparticle-induced immunomodulatory effects|
|Authors:||JANNEKE OOSTINGH Gertie; CASALS Eudald; ITALIANI Paola; COLOGNATO Renato; STRITZINGER René; PONTI Jessica; PFALLER Tobias; KOHL Yvonne; OOMS Daniëlla; FAVILLI Flavia; LEPPENS Hilde; LUCCHESI Davide; ROSSI Francois; NELISSEN I.; THIELECKE Hagen; F. PUNTES Victor; DUSCHL Albert; BORASCHI Diana|
|Citation:||PARTICLE AND FIBRE TOXICOLOGY vol. 8 no. 8|
|Publisher:||BIOMED CENTRAL LTD|
|Type:||Articles in Journals|
|Abstract:||Background. With the increasing use of nanomaterials, the need for methods and assays to examine their immunosafety is becoming urgent, in particular for nanomaterials that are deliberately administered to human subjects (as in the case of nanomedicines). To obtain reliable results, standardised in vitro immunotoxicological tests should be used to determine the effects of engineered nanoparticles on the human immune responses. However, before assays can be standardised, it is important that suitable methods are established and validated. Results. In a collaborative work between European laboratories, existing immunological and toxicological in vitro assays were tested and compared for their suitability to test effects of in nanoparticles on -immune responsesotoxicological testing. The prototypical nanoparticles used were metal (oxide) particles, either custom-generated by wet synthesis or commercially available as powders. Several problems and challenges were encountered during assay validation, ranging from particle agglomeration in biological media and optical interference with assay systems, to chemical immunotoxicity of solvents and contamination with endotoxin.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection|
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