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|Title:||PCDD/F, PCB and HCB in Soil and Ash from Brick Production Sites in Kenya, South Africa and Mexico|
|Authors:||UMLAUF Gunther; BOUWMAN Henk; CARDENAS Beartiz; FIEDLER Heidelore; MARIANI Giulio; MIRIKAU Charles; SKEJO Helle; THANNER Gerhard|
|Citation:||Organohalogen Compounds vol. 73 p. 1041 - 1045|
|Publisher:||International Advisory Board of the International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)|
|Type:||Contributions to Conferences|
|Abstract:||The implementation of the Stockholm Convention implies the generation of national emission inventories for Dioxins and Furans. So far little is known about the emissions from processes typically applied in Developing countries. Among the processes with a high activity and a high pollution potential (since wastes are often co-incinerated) is brick making. In the follow up of emission measurements at brick kilns in Mexico (MX) soil and bottom ashes were collected around these sites and compared to samples from brick making sites in South Africa (SA) and Kenya (KY) . Through the comparison of the impact on the nearby environment we tried to verify, whether the Emission Factors obtained from the measurements in Mexico can be applied to other regions where no measurements are available and where no adequate infrastructure exists to conduct. The levels in soil and ash were low in SA and KY (wood and coal fired kilns) and at a comparable level to the MX sites where virgin wood or LPG was used. The soils around waste derived fuel fired kilns in MX were somewhat higher, but still at levels that can e found in rural environments of the Northern Hemisphere. Apart from the overall confirmation of the applicability of the emission factors obtained from the study in MX, the very low level in the background soils investigated confirms the global North/South gradient of POPs pollution.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Environment and Sustainability|
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