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|Title:||Modeling the inter-annual variability of salinity in the lagoon of Venice in relation to the Water Framework Directive typologies|
|Authors:||GHEZZO Michol; GUERZONI Stefano; SARRETTA ALESSANDRO; TAGLIAPIETRA Davide; UMGIESSER Georg|
|Citation:||OCEAN & COASTAL MANAGEMENT vol. 54 no. 9 p. 706-719|
|Publisher:||ELSEVIER SCI LTD|
|Type:||Articles in Journals|
|Abstract:||The Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) requires to classify the water basins in order to reserve their ecological integrity. To estimate the effects of the natural variability on the lagoon classification, as required by, we applied a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to the Venice lagoon. The model calculated the mean annual spatial distributions of two variables: salinity and residence time. The former is specified by System B of the WFD as obligatory factor and the latter as an optional factor. The standard deviation of salinity was also included, in order to estimate the variation of salinity values around the mean, which is associated with the persistence of the mean salinity value. A highly detailed numerical grid was calibrated and high-frequency discharge data were adopted for the tributaries. The simulations, under realistic forcing conditions, refer to the years 2003 and 2005. The first year was characterized by low precipitation, around 30% less than the typical value. A comparison of model results and measurements shows the high reliability of the model in reproducing the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of salinity. We found strong inter-annual variation in salinity, standard deviation of salinity and residence time. The effect on the typing process is that the most representative types shift from one category to another. We considered the different spatial combinations of the variables and identified types that described the bulk of the lagoon and we proposed a possible division of the lagoon into water bodies.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Environment and Sustainability|
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