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|Title:||Food contact material for baking: a review on associated chemical risks and technological issues|
|Authors:||LE-BAIL Alain; VEYRAND Bruno; DURAND Sophie; KADAR Hanane; PROST Carole; GRUA Joelle; SIMONEAU Catherine; PERRONNET Annick; ROELENS Guillaume; LE BIZEC Bruno|
|Publisher:||VDMA Verlag GmbH|
|JRC Publication N°:||JRC68235|
|Type:||Articles in books|
|Abstract:||This article presents an overview on product contact surfaces (PCS) used for baking supports, with a focus on associated neoformed and exogenous contaminants related to these PCSs in the case of baking. Exogenous contaminants are usually brought into the product from the surface contact material of the baking support, and in particular, from antistick coatings (ASC). Due to multiple thermal treatments, the performance of ASCs evolve during ageing, resulting in sticking problems. In addition, there is no European regulation in force to track associated chemical risks. Two main types of ASC material are used: perfluorinated and silicone based ASC. Sticking of bakery products during baking is linked to various aspects such as recipe, baking temperature, the use (or not) of antistick fluids, etc. For instance, silicone coatings are preferred to perfluorinated coatings for yellow dough. Some products, such as biscuits, can be baked directly on steel. A limited amount of literature exists on the risk of chemical transfer from either fluorinated or silicone based coatings to the food. Highly sensitive measurement methods based on liquid chromatograpy coupled to tandem mass spectometry (LC-MS/MS) and/or liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) have been used for the determination of 13 perfluorinated compounds (including perfluorooctane sulfonate anion (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water and pancakes cooked in contact with ASC. Preliminary results (not shown) indicated that contamination was below the regulation threshold when using new cookware equipment (frying pan). Two other PCSs used in baking, aluminium and baking paper, and their associated chemical risks are discussed. Neoformed contaminants are usually due to reactions between inoffensive precursors, which result from the interaction between these precursors and the matrix. The impact of the thermal treatment combined with the evolution of other physical parameters (e.g., moisture, pH, etc.) may result in the formation of neoformed contaminants. The case of the Maillard reaction compounds (MRCs) and of the 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) esters and the impact of the pH on those contaminants is discussed. Finally, the technological problem of sticking seems to be closely linked to the condition of the product contact surface, and thus indirectly linked to a higher risk of transfer of exogenous contaminants into the product. Therefore, it appears advisible to develop tools and protocols to assess the condition of baking support undergoing multiple thermal cycles for the benefit of the industry and of the health of consumers.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection|
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