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|Title:||Monitoring atmospheric levels and deposition of dioxin-like pollutants in sub-alpine Northern Italy|
|Authors:||CASTRO-JIMENEZ Javier; EISENREICH Steven; MARIANI Giulio; SKEJO Helle; UMLAUF Gunther|
|Citation:||ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT vol. 56 p. 194-202|
|Publisher:||PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||The objective of this work was to assess the atmospheric occurrence, seasonal variations and deposition of dioxin-like pollutants (17 PCDD/Fs + 12 DL-PCBs) in sub-alpine northern Italy. A total of 108 weekly integrated samples (aerosol + gas phases) were collected during a 1-year period (2005-2006) at the Ispra EMEP site (Northern Italy, 45°49’N, 8°38’E). Atmospheric loadings into Lake Maggiore were also estimated by implementing a deposition model. ∑2,3,7,8-PCDD/F atmospheric total concentrations were dominated by the aerosol-bound fraction and ranged from 50 to 3080 (1 – 215 WHO98 TEQ) fg m-3. In contrast DL-PCB levels were dominated by the gas phase concentrations and varied from 1800 to 14800 (1 – 5 WHO98 TEQ) fg m-3. The aerosol and gas phase concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs exhibited a similar seasonality (higher values in winter time for aerosol-bound contaminants and lower concentrations for gas phase contaminants) in spite of their different environmental sources and properties. Estimated total atmospheric (dry + wet) depositional fluxes of dioxin-like pollutants in subalpine northern Italy were ~0.2 to ~9.5 ng m-2d-1, with wet deposition dominating. Total atmospheric inputs (2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs + DL-PCBs) into Lake Maggiore ranged from 14 to 304 g y-1. Higher environmental concentrations of dioxin-like pollutants in subalpine northern Italy are expected in the cold season and in rainy days due to a combined effect of stagnant atmospheric conditions (low winds), household wood burning in the region and higher pollutant loads via rainfall in winter.|
|JRC Institute:||Institute for Environment and Sustainability|
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