Title: The Development of US Policies directed at stimulating Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Authors: AUDRETSCH DavidALDRIDGE Taylor
Editors: GOLDBERG IZYDOR
BIAGI FEDERICO
DESRUELLE Paul
Publisher: Publications Office of the European Union
Publication Year: 2014
JRC N°: JRC87894
ISBN: 978-92-79-35488-5
ISSN: 1831-9424
Other Identifiers: EUR 26518
OP LF-NA-26518-EN-N
URI: http://ipts.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/pub.cfm?CFID=f319d928-d4bf-4810-9f4f-3076f19c6708&CFTOKEN=0&id=7241
http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC87894
DOI: 10.2791/64747
Type: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports
Abstract: This report explores how U.S. federal institutions fund and influence innovation in the knowledge economy context and if any agencies or particular policies could be replicated in other countries. Three key U.S. agencies are identified as having significantly contributed to innovation and growth: (1) the Small Business Innovative Research program (SBIR), (2) the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) and (3) the Defense Advanced Research Program Agency (DARPA). How these agencies have advanced US innovation is explained in detail. The beginning of the report offers a lens for understanding why and how research and development does not necessarily lead to innovation. The report explores how ideas must pass through a knowledge filter in order to become successful innovations. This filter, which may impede potential innovations, means that transfers from ideas to innovations are not linear, nor are they always successful even though conditions may be suitable. Therefore, U.S. agencies are needed to help firms pass through the Valley of Death from ideas to successful commercial innovations. The report identifies US policies which could conceivably be replicated in other countries. Most notably, the authors argue that spurring innovation from European universities, with the help of an SBIR-like institution, may offer considerable help in transforming European ideas into innovations. The report concludes that the SBIR offered significant aid to innovative firms in the US and its replication by Horizon 2020 could also offer significant advantages for commercialization of inventions and ideas. The report also points out potential problems in a adopting an SBIR-like program in other countries.
JRC Directorate:Growth and Innovation

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