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|Title:||Thin Films: Characterization by X-Rays|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||X-ray techniques are widely used for materials characterization, and are often applied in thin film technology research. For example X-ray diffraction (XRD) provides information about crystalline structure, crystallite size, stress, and texture. Such techniques are found in most materials science laboratories and are also widely applied in industry. In order to make X-ray analysis more sensitive to surfaces or thin films, a ‘glancing angle’ or ‘grazing incidence’ geometry can be used. This article provides a brief overview of this geometry and three X-ray techniques that may be applied in this way to thin film characterization.|
|JRC Directorate:||Institute for Health and Consumer Protection Historical Collection|
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