Title: Investigation of vehicle exhaust sub-23 nm particle emissions
Citation: AEROSOL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY vol. 51 no. 5 p. 626-641
Publication Year: 2016
JRC N°: JRC100327
ISSN: 0278-6826
URI: http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC100327
DOI: 10.1080/02786826.2017.1286291
Type: Articles in periodicals and books
Abstract: A solid particle number limit was applied to the European legislation for diesel vehicles in 2011. Extension to gasoline direct injection vehicles raised concerns because many studies found particles below the lower size limit of the method (23 nm). Here we investigated experimentally the feasibility of lowering this size. A nano condensation nucleus counter system (nCNC) (d50% = 1.3 nm) was used in parallel with condensation particle counters (CPCs) (d50% = 3 nm, 10 nm and 23 nm) at various sampling systems based on ejector or rotating disk diluters and having thermal pre-treatment systems consisting of evaporation tubes or catalytic strippers. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) measured the particle size distributions. Depending on the losses and thermal pre-treatment of the sampling system, differences of up to 150% could be seen on the final detected particle concentrations when including the particles smaller than 23 nm in diameter. A volatile artefact as particles with diameters below 10 nm was at times observed during the cold start measurements of a 2-stroke moped. The diesel vehicles equipped with the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) had a low solid sub-23 nm particles fraction (<20%), the gasoline with direct injection vehicles had higher (35–50%), the gasoline vehicles with port fuel injection and the two mopeds (two and four-stroke) had the majority of particles below 23 nm. The size distributions peaked at 60–80 nm for the DPF equipped vehicles, at 40–90 nm for the gasoline vehicles with a separate nucleation mode peak at approximately 10 nm sometimes. Mopeds peaked at sizes below 50 nm when their aerosol was thermally pre-treated.
JRC Directorate:Energy, Transport and Climate

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