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|Title:||Quantification of the cellular dose and characterization of nanoparticles transport during in vitro testing|
|Authors:||RISCHITOR GRIGORE; PARRACINO ANTONIETTA; LA SPINA RITA; URBAN LOPEZ PATRICIA; OJEA JIMENEZ ISAAC; BELLIDO VERA ELENA; VALSESIA Andrea; GIORIA Sabrina; CAPOMACCIO ROBIN BRUNO; KINSNER-OVASKAINEN Agnieszka; GILLILAND Douglas; ROSSI Francois; COLPO Pascal|
|Citation:||PARTICLE AND FIBRE TOXICOLOGY vol. 13 no. 47|
|Publisher:||BIOMED CENTRAL LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Background: The constant increase of the use of nanomaterials in consumer products is making increasingly urgent that standardized and reliable in vitro test methods for toxicity screening be made available to the scientific community. For this purpose, the determination of the cellular dose, i.e. the amount of nanomaterials effectively in contact with the cells is fundamental for a trustworthy determination of nanomaterial dose responses. This has often been overlooked in the literature making it difficult to undertake a comparison of datasets from different studies. Characterization of the mechanisms involved in nanomaterial transport and the determination of the cellular dose is essential for the development of predictive numerical models and reliable in vitro screening methods. Results: This work aims to relate key physico-chemical properties of gold nanoparticles (NPs) to the kinetics of their deposition on the cellular monolayer. Firstly, an extensive characterization of NPs in complete culture cell medium was performed to determine the diameter and the apparent mass density of the formed NP-serum protein complexes. Subsequently, the kinetics of deposition were studied by UV-vis absorbance measurements in the presence or absence of cells. The fraction of NPs deposited on the cellular layer was found to be highly dependent on NP size and apparent density because these two parameters influence the NP transport. The NP deposition occurred in two phases: phase 1, which consists of cellular uptake driven by the NP-cell affinity, and phase 2 consisting mainly of NP deposition onto the cellular membrane. Conclusion: The fraction of deposited NPs is very different from the initial concentration applied in the in vitro assay, and is highly dependent of the size and density of the NPs, on the associated transport rate and on the exposure duration. This study shows that an accurate characterization is needed and suitable experimental conditions such as initial concentration of NPs and liquid height in the wells has to be considered since they strongly influence the cellular dose and the nature of interactions of NPs with the cells.|
|JRC Directorate:||Health, Consumers and Reference Materials|
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