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|Title:||The Global Methane Budget 2000-2012|
|Authors:||SAUNOIS Marielle; BOUSQUET Philippe; POULTER Benjamin; PEREGON A.; CIAIS Philippe; CANADELL Josep G.; DLUGOKENCKY E.; ETIOPE G.; BASTVIKEN D.; HOUWELING Sander; JANSSENS-MAENHOUT Greet; TUBIELLO Francesco; CASTALDI Simona; JACKSON Robert B.; ALEXE MIHAI; ARORA Vivek K.; BEERLING David J.; BERGAMASCHI Peter; BLAKE Donald R.; BRAILSFORD Gordon; BROVKIN Victor; BRUHWILER Lori; CREVOISIER C.d.; CRILL Patrick; CURRY Charles; FRANKENBERG Christian; GEDNEY Nicola; HÖGLUND-ISAKSSON Lena; ISHIZAWA Misa; ITO Akihiko; JOOS Fortunat; KIM Heon-Sook; KLEINEN Thomas; KRUMMEL P. B.; LAMARQUE Jean-Francois; LANGENFELDS Ray L.; LOCATELLI Robin; MACHIDA Toshinobu; MAKSYUTOV Shamil; MCDONALD Kyle C.; MARSHALL J.; MELTON J.r.; MORINO I; O’Doherty S.; PARMENTIER F.j.w.; PATRA Prabir; PENG Changhui; PENG Shushi; PETERS Glen P.; PISON Isabelle; PRIGENT Catherine; PRINN R. G.; RAMONET Michel; RILEY William J.; SAITO Makoto; SCHROEDER Ronny; SIMPSON Isobel J.; SPAHNI Renato; STEELE L. P.; TAKIZAWA Atsushi; COVEY Kristofer; NAIK Vaishali; SANTINI Monia; THORNTON Brett F.; TIAN Hanqin; TOHJIMA Y.; VIOVY N.; VOULGARAKIS Apostolos; VAN WEELE Michiel; VAN DER WERF G. R.; WEISS Ray; WIEDINMYER C.; WILTON David J.; WILTSHIRE Andy; WORTHY D.e.j.; WUNCH Debra; XU Xiyan; YOSHIDA Y; ZHANG Bowen; ZHANG Zhen; ZHU Qiuan|
|Citation:||EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE DATA vol. 8 p. 697–751|
|Publisher:||COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||The global methane (CH4) budget is becoming an increasingly important component for managing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. This relevance, due to a shorter atmospheric lifetime and a stronger warming potential than carbon dioxide, is challenged by the still unexplained changes of atmospheric CH4 over the past decade. Emissions and concentrations of CH4 are continuing to increase, making CH4 the second most important human-induced greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Two major difficulties in reducing uncertainties come from the large variety of diffusive CH4 sources that overlap geographically, and from the destruction of CH4 by the very short-lived hydroxyl radical (OH). To address these difficulties, we have established a consortium of multi-disciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate research on the methane cycle, and producing regular (∼ biennial) updates of the global methane budget. This consortium includes atmospheric physicists and chemists, biogeochemists of surface and marine emissions, and socio-economists who study anthropogenic emissions. Following Kirschke et al. (2013), we propose here the first version of a living review paper that integrates results of top-down studies (exploiting atmospheric observations within an atmospheric inverse-modelling framework) and bottom-up models, inventories and data-driven approaches (including process-based models for estimating land surface emissions and atmospheric chemistry, and inventories for anthropogenic emissions, data-driven extrapolations). For the 2003–2012 decade, global methane emissions are estimated by top-down inversions at 558 Tg CH4 yr−1, range 540–568. About 60 % of global emissions are anthropogenic (range 50–65 %). Since 2010, the bottom-up global emission inventories have been closer to methane emissions in the most carbon-intensive Representative Concentrations Pathway (RCP8.5) and higher than all other RCP scenarios. Bottom-up approaches suggest larger global emissions (736 Tg CH4 yr−1, range 596–884) mostly because of larger natural emissions from individual sources such as inland waters, natural wetlands and geological sources. Considering the atmospheric constraints on the top-down budget, it is likely that some of the individual emissions reported by the bottom-up approaches are overestimated, leading to too large global emissions. Latitudinal data from top-down emissions indicate a predominance of tropical emissions (∼ 64 % of the global budget, < 30° N) as compared to mid (∼ 32 %, 30–60° N) and high northern latitudes (∼ 4 %, 60–90° N). Top-down inversions consistently infer lower emissions in China (∼ 58 Tg CH4 yr−1, range 51–72, −14 %) and higher emissions in Africa (86 Tg CH4 yr−1, range 73–108, +19 %) than bottom-up values used as prior estimates. Overall, uncertainties for anthropogenic emissions appear smaller than those from natural sources, and the uncertainties on source categories appear larger for top-down inversions than for bottom-up inventories and models. The most important source of uncertainty on the methane budget is attributable to emissions from wetland and other inland waters. We show that the wetland extent could contribute 30–40 % on the estimated range for wetland emissions. Other priorities for improving the methane budget include the following: (i) the development of process-based models for inland-water emissions, (ii) the intensification of methane observations at local scale (flux measurements) to constrain bottom-up land surface models, and at regional scale (surface networks and satellites) to constrain top-down inversions, (iii) improvements in the estimation of atmospheric loss by OH, and (iv) improvements of the transport models integrated in top-down inversions. The data presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (http://doi.org/10.3334/CDIAC/GLOBAL_METHANE_BUDGET_2016_V1.1) and the Global Carbon Project.|
|JRC Directorate:||Energy, Transport and Climate|
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