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|Title:||Chapter 14; International Harmonization and Cooperation in the Validation of Alternative Methods|
|Authors:||VIEGAS BARROSO JOAO FILIPE; AHN Il Young; CALDEIRA Cristiane; CARMICHAEL Paul; CASEY, Warren; COECKE Sandra; CURREN R; DESPREZ BERTRAND; ESKES Chantra; GRIESINGER Claudius; GUO Jiabin; HILL Erin; JANUSCH ROI Annett; KOJIMA H; LI Jin; LIM Chae Hyung; MOURA Wlamir; NISHIKAWA Akiyoshi; PARK Hyekyung; PENG Shuang-Qing; Presgrave O.; SINGER Tim; SOHN Soojung; WESTMORELAND Carl; WHELAN Maurice; YANG Xingfen; YANG Ying; ZUANG Valerie|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||The development and validation of scientific alternatives to animal testing is important not only from an ethical perspective (implementation of 3Rs), but also to improve safety assessment decision making with the use of mechanistic information of higher relevance to humans. To be effective in these efforts, it is however imperative that validation centres, industry, regulatory bodies, academia and other interested parties ensure a strong international cooperation, cross-sector collaboration and intense communication in the design, execution, and peer review of validation studies. Such an approach is critical to achieve harmonized and more transparent approaches to method validation, peer-review and recommendation, which will ultimately expedite the international acceptance of valid alternative methods or strategies by regulatory authorities and their implementation and use by stakeholders. It also allows achieving greater efficiency and effectiveness by avoiding duplication of effort and leveraging limited resources. In view of achieving these goals, the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods (ICATM) was established in 2009 by validation centres from Europe, USA, Canada and Japan. ICATM was later joined by Korea in 2011 and currently also counts with Brazil and China as observers. This chapter describes the existing differences across world regions and major efforts carried out for achieving consistent international cooperation and harmonization in the validation and adoption of alternative approaches to animal testing.|
|JRC Directorate:||Health, Consumers and Reference Materials|
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