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|Title:||How is energy efficiency governed in the EU? Multi-level Governance of Energy Efficiency polices, strategies and targets at EU, National, Regional, and local level|
|Authors:||MELICA GIULIA; IANCU ANDREEA; RIVAS CALVETE SILVIA; BERTOLDI PAOLO; KONA ALBANA; ZANCANELLA PAOLO|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Energy efficiency is recognised by policy makers at EU, national, and local level as a key solution for the mitigation of climate change. Targets have been established or are still under discussion for energy and climate, e.g. the EU 2030 targets, the national energy efficiency strategies, which may have 2030 or longer-term targets. Several regions (e.g. Lander in Germany) have their own strategies and targets. Finally under the Covenant of Mayors, over 7,000 local authorities all over Europe have set climate targets for 2020 and/or 2030. The paper presents, analyses and discusses the role and importance of targets, of energy and climate planning at different levels of governance, and of monitoring energy and carbon emissions against a baseline. In particular the paper reports on successful examples of collaboration between municipalities and provinces/regions in the frame of the Covenant of Mayors and likewise co-ordination between regional and national strategies. National policies could be better implemented if adapted to local situations and closer to citizens, for example urban transport strategies or local building codes. At the same time local administrations should be aware of national or EU policies (e.g. national incentives, efficiency requirements, etc.) when setting city targets and policies. In particular local, regional and national plans should be coordinated and integrated. The same is also valid for the monitoring and reporting progresses on carbon emission reductions and energy savings. The paper argues that both approaches, i.e. top down (EU and/or national) and bottom up (regional and/or local) are important and needed to reach ambitious climate change targets. These two approaches should be complemented and well integrated in the policy design, implementation and monitoring. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to improve the collaboration between different levels of policy-making, to maximise the benefits of multilevel governance.|
|JRC Directorate:||Energy, Transport and Climate|
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