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dc.contributor.authorRIO ECHEVARRIA IRIA MARIAen_GB
dc.contributor.authorPONTI JESSICAen_GB
dc.contributor.authorURBAN LOPEZ PATRICIAen_GB
dc.contributor.authorGILLILAND DOUGLASen_GB
dc.identifier.citationNANOTOXICOLOGY vol. 13 no. 7 p. 923-937en_GB
dc.identifier.issn1743-5390 (online)en_GB
dc.description.abstractNanotechnology is considered to be a key enabling technology and in recent years there has been much growth in the use of nanostructured materials in industrial applications and in consumer products. It is therefore important that prior to being commercialised in consumer products, engineered nanomaterials are subjected to a thorough physico-chemical characterization as part of broader risk assessment to evaluate their possible effects on human health and the environment. The proper dispersion of nanomaterials sourced as powders becomes a first crucial step in the characterization process. This paper focuses on the dispersion of multiwall carbon nanotubes -often hydrophobic and tangled- since it may be challenging to re-disperse them effectively in aqueous media prior to characterisation. A comparison has been made of non-contact vial sonication and immersion probe sonication using tannic acid as a dispersant. Transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy were the techniques used to evaluate the dispersions. We used High Content Imaging and Colony Forming Efficiency to perform in vitro cytotoxicity studies on Human Alveolar Epithelial cells. It was found that both sonication treatments produce equivalent stable dispersions. No cytotoxic effects from MWCNTs were observed although some toxicity was observed and attributed to excess of the tannic acid dispersant.en_GB
dc.description.sponsorshipJRC.F.2-Consumer Products Safetyen_GB
dc.publisherTAYLOR & FRANCIS LTDen_GB
dc.titleVial sonication and ultrasonic immersion probe sonication to generate stable dispersions of multiwall carbon nanotubes for physico-chemical characterisation and biological testingen_GB
dc.typeArticles in periodicals and booksen_GB
dc.identifier.doi10.1080/17435390.2019.1597203 (online)en_GB
JRC Directorate:Health, Consumers and Reference Materials

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