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|Title:||Ambient particulate matter source apportionment using receptor modelling in European and Central Asia urban areas|
|Authors:||ALMEIDA M.; MANOUSAKAS MANOUSOS-IOANNIS; DIAPOULI E.; KERTESZ ZSOFIA; SAMEK LUCYNA; HRISTOVA ELENA; SEGA KRESIMIR; PADILLA ALVAREZ ROMAN; BELIS CLAUDIO; ELEFTHERIADIS K.; CIVICI NIKOLLA; RADIC RANKA; VUKIC LJILJANA; VELEVA BLAGORODKA; BESLIC IVAN; DAVILA SILVIJE; GODEC RANKA; VRATOLIS S.; BERNATONIS MINDAUGAS; DJUKANOVIC GORDANA; JANCIC DEJAN; SAMEK LUCYNA; FURMAN LESZEK; STEGOWSKI ZDZISLAW; GALINHA CATARINA; BALAN VIOLETA; NIKOLOVSKA LIDIJA; STEFANOVSKA ANETA; RADENKOVIC MIRJANA; KNEZEVIC JASMINA; BANU OZTAS NUR; CANTAY EMRE; TURCHENKO DIMITRI; ABDULLAEV SABUR; KARYDAS ANDREAS|
|Citation:||ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION vol. 266 p. 115199|
|Publisher:||ELSEVIER SCI LTD|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||This work presents the results of a PM2.5 source apportionment study conducted in urban background sites from 16 European and Asian countries. For some Eastern Europe and Central Asia cities this was the first time that quantitative information on pollution source contributions to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been performed. More than 2200 filters were sampled and analyzed by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure the concentrations of chemical elements in fine particles. Samples were also analyzed for the contents of black carbon, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and water-soluble ions. The Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model (EPA PMF 5.0) was used to characterize similarities and heterogeneities in PM2.5 sources and respective contributions in the cities that the number of collected samples exceeded 75. At the end source apportionment was performed in 11 out of the 16 participating cities. Nine major sources were identified to have contributed to PM2.5: biomass burning, secondary sulfates, traffic, fuel oil combustion, industry, coal combustion, soil, salt and “other sources”. From the averages of sources contributions, considering 11 cities 16% of PM2.5 was attributed to biomass burning, 15% to secondary sulfates, 13% to traffic, 12% to soil, 8.0% to fuel oil combustion, 5.5% to coal combustion, 1.9% to salt, 0.8% to industry emissions, 5.1% to “other sources” and 23% to unaccounted mass. Characteristic seasonal patterns were identified for each PM2.5 source. Biomass burning in all cities, coal combustion in Krakow/POL, and oil combustion in Belgrade/SRB and Banja Luka/BIH increased in Winter due to the impact of domestic heating, whereas in most cities secondary sulfates reached higher levels in Summer as a consequence of the enhanced photochemical activity. During high pollution days the largest sources of fine particles were biomass burning, traffic and secondary sulfates.|
|JRC Directorate:||Energy, Transport and Climate|
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