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|Title:||Development of a harmonised soil profile analytical database for Europe: a resource for supporting regional soil management|
|Authors:||JEPPE AGARD KRISTENSEN; THOMAS BALSTRØM; JONES ROBERT; JONES ARWYN; MONTANARELLA LUCA; PANAGOS PANAGIOTIS; BREUNING-MADSEN HENRIK|
|Citation:||SOIL vol. 5 no. 2 p. 289-301|
|Publisher:||COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH|
|ISSN:||2199-398X (online),2199-3971 (print)|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Soil mapping is an essential method for obtaining a spatial overview of soil resources that are increasingly threatened by environmental change and population pressure. Despite recent advances in digital soil-mapping techniques based on inference, such methods are still immature for large-scale soil mapping. During the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, soil scientists constructed a harmonised soil map of Europe (1:1 000 000) based on national soil maps. Despite this extraordinary regional overview of the spatial distribution of European soil types, crude assumptions about soil properties were necessary for translating the maps into thematic information relevant to management. To support modellers with analytical data connected to the soil map, the European Soil Bureau Network (ESBW) commissioned the development of the soil profile analytical database for Europe (SPADE) in the late 1980s. This database contains soil analytical data based on a standardised set of soil analytical methods across the European countries. Here, we review the principles adopted for developing the SPADE database during the past five decades, the work towards fulfilling the milestones of full geographic coverage for dominant soils in all the European countries (SPADE level 1) and the addition of secondary soil types (SPADE level 2). We illustrate the application of the database by showing the distribution of the root zone capacity and by estimating the soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks at a depth of 1 m for Europe to be 60×1015 g. The increased accuracy, potentially obtained by including secondary soil types (level 2), is shown in a case study to estimate SOC stocks in Denmark. Until data from systematic cross-European soil-sampling programmes have sufficient spatial coverage for reliable data interpolation, integrating national soil maps and locally assessed analytical data into a harmonised database remains a powerful resource to support soil resources management at regional and continental scales by providing a platform to guide sustainable soil management and food production.|
|JRC Directorate:||Sustainable Resources|
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