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|Title:||An experimental study to investigate typical temperature conditions in fuel tanks of European vehicles|
|Authors:||GRIGORATOS THEODOROS; MARTINI GIORGIO; CARRIERO MASSIMO|
|Citation:||ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH vol. 26 no. 17 p. 17608–17622|
|Type:||Articles in periodicals and books|
|Abstract:||Vehicular evaporative emissions have been recognized as an important source of volatile organic compounds to the environment and are of high environmental concern since these compounds have been associated to the formation of surface ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Evaporative emissions occur during any vehicle operation. In Europe, a revised legislative test procedure has been recently introduced to better control evaporative emissions during parking. However, emissions related to normal driving conditions—the so-called running losses—have received less attention compared with the other categories. The current study aims at giving some insights to the prevailing temperature conditions in fuel tanks of typical European vehicles during normal driving operation. The effects of ambient air temperature, trip duration, vehicle speed, and fuel tank level on the temperature reached by the fuel inside the tank under different real-world operating conditions were studied. Tank temperature can exceed 40 °C depending on ambient and driving conditions. Ambient temperature was found to be the most important parameter affecting the tank temperature. Trip duration and driving pattern may also have an influence on the tank temperature particularly when long trips combined with high vehicle speed are examined. Additionally, the difference between tank and ambient temperature was examined during the individual trips and was found to vary between 1 and 10 °C depending on the testing conditions. The most important parameters affecting the delta temperature were found to be the trip duration and the maximum vehicle speed. Finally, the purging strategy of two of the test vehicles was monitored, and the parameters affecting the purging flow rate were investigated. No strong correlation between the canister flow rate with ambient temperature, vehicle speed, or fuel level was observed in either of the tested vehicles. Substantially different canister flow rate levels between the two vehicles point to different purging strategies.|
|JRC Directorate:||Energy, Transport and Climate|
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